タグ:ウイグル ( 98 ) タグの人気記事
タジキスタン政府はトルコ籍のウイグル人を中国に引き渡すのか
中亚维吾尔人遭逮捕遣返引关注

http://news.boxun.com/news/gb/intl/2011/01/201101290006.shtml

(博讯北京时间2011年1月29日 转载)

美国之音记者: 白桦
三名维吾尔人最近在塔吉克斯坦被当地警方拘捕。这三人有可能将被遣返中国。人权活动人士说,居住在中亚国家的维吾尔人被捕并被遣返中国的事件时常发生。

*塔吉克逮捕三名维吾尔人*

着重中亚地区新闻的俄罗斯费尔干纳新闻网最近报导,三名在塔吉克斯坦首都杜尚别居住的维吾尔人被当地警方拘捕。其中一名维吾尔人首先在1月9日被逮捕,他的两位朋友第二天去杜尚别警察局打听他的下落时,也立刻被捕。这三名维吾尔人有可能将被遣返中国。

报导说,第一名被捕的那位维吾尔人的兄弟曾被指控从事分离活动,10年前在新疆被中国政府处决。

*土耳其维吾尔人抗议*

这三名在杜尚别被捕的维吾尔人均拥有土耳其国籍。费尔干纳新闻网援引土耳其媒体的报导说,大约80名居住在土耳其的维吾尔人几天前在位于安卡拉的塔吉克斯坦大使馆前举行示威集会,他们抗议三名维吾尔人在杜尚别失踪。

土耳其外交官员已向塔吉克斯坦外交部发出照会寻求三名失踪维吾尔人的下落,但至今没有得到回答。

*中亚向中国遣返维吾尔人*

报导说,在土耳其的维吾尔人组织正向国际人权机构呼吁,希望能关注这三名维吾尔人的命运。维吾尔人组织的一名领导人还表示,最近几年来,中亚国家政府多次向中国遣返维吾尔人,尽管其中的一些维吾尔人拥有西方国家的国籍。

位于莫斯科的纪念碑人权组织中亚人权项目负责人维塔利-帕诺马廖夫说,中亚国家安全机构逮捕维吾尔人,然后再把他们遣返中国,这已不是新闻。

*安全部门私下交易 可获中国奖励*

帕诺马廖夫说:“总的来讲,在中亚地区围绕维吾尔人发生的许多事件一般都不被公开。因为从新疆逃出来的许多维吾尔人都不相信俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦、以及其他的中亚地区政府,他们一般都依靠自己的途经来解决问题。”

帕诺马廖夫说,中亚地区的安全机构向中国遣返维吾尔人时,不走正规渠道,比如通过检察院等等,通常是双方安全部门私下达成交易。在这种情况下,中亚国家安全部门都能获得来自中国金钱奖励。

*维吾尔人如同行李货物被运回中国*

帕诺马廖夫说:“有时我们得到维吾尔人遭到遣返的消息都迟到了很长时间。而且有关维吾尔人被捕和遣返事件的信息也不完整。比如我们不久前曾获得消息,一年半之前,在中国被通辑的一名维吾尔人曾在吉尔吉斯斯坦被当地安全部门拘捕。这名维吾尔人被捆绑装进箱子里如同行李货物那样被运回了中国。”

*上合组织合作*

中亚地区居住了众多维吾尔人。维吾尔人在几个中亚国家都拥有很大的社区。

上海合作组织在所谓的反恐等领域签署了许多协议。人权人士帕诺马廖夫说,上合组织国家的安全机构在类似遣返维吾尔人,或是打击各成员国内部的所谓的分离势力,反政府势力等领域彼此合作并互换情报。

[PR]
by YAPONLUQ | 2011-01-31 00:34 | 東突厥斯坦/"新疆"ウイグル
维吾尔大学生撰文称:新疆双语教育执行上被严重歪曲
维吾尔大学生撰文称:新疆双语教育执行上被严重歪曲
http://www.peacehall.com/news/gb/china/2011/01/201101250412.shtml

(博讯北京时间2011年1月25日 转载)

作者:土尔克扎提•拜斯尔 来源:维吾尔在线

众所周知,新疆维吾尔自治区是我国最大的省级自治区。这份宝贵的土地占全国国土面积的约1/6。而今天在这里生活着54个不同的民族。目前全国有56个民族,在新疆就有其中54个。显然,新疆维吾尔自治区是我国民族成分最为复杂的地区。因此高度重视和调整新疆的民族关系是在促进整个国家和平发展的道路中起决定性作用。所以对这种特殊地区而制定的任何一种政策必须得通过有关部门,有关人士反复地思考,反复地琢磨才能批准实施。但目前为止,在新疆执行的一系列政策中,往往有一些政策并没有涉及到少数民族群体的基本利益甚至基本权利。这类的有些政策有些还是地方政府自己制定的。最可悲的是国家为少数民族地区而制定的有些政策,到地方以后执行上被严重歪曲。我们在这里注重讨论实行双语教育政策中存在的一些问题。

在新疆双语教学主要指的是新疆维吾尔自治区民族中学的一种教学双语模式。最初阶段其主要授课形式是:从初一开始到高中毕业,数学、物理、化学、英语用汉语授课,其它课程用学生的母语授课,学生参加中考、高考时,数学、物理、化学、英语使用全国统一汉语试卷,民语文、汉语使用新疆命题的民族试卷。其目的是通过这种形式提高民族教育质量,为新疆培养“民汉兼通”的少数民族高科技人才。双语始于1992年,现在已遍及全疆各地、州、市。发展到目前为止,规模不断扩大,双语班数量已经达到四千多个,有些地区的民族学校的双语授课班级已经从初中一年级开始改为从小学一年级开始,04年时,自治区还制定了民族学生学前双语教育政策,将少数民族双语教育的阶段提前,争取到2010年,全区各个地县市及乡村都能实现两年的双语学前教育;另外从汉语授课的科目来说,有些有条件的地区不仅仅限于数学、物理、化学、英语用汉语授课,现在己经发展为除母语语文外,其他科目均用汉语授课。

那双语教育本身是什么概念呢?首先得给这个概念下个定义:
双语教育是由英语“bilingual education”翻译而来。国外有关双语教育的界定不下几十种,但可以把它划分为广义的双语教育和狭义的双语教育两种:广义的双语教育指的是学校中使用两种语言的教育。狭义的双语教育指的是学校中使用第二语言或外语传授学科内容的教育。双语教育在我国有两种类型:对拥有自己母语的少数民族地区而实行的双语教育,这里的双语指的这些地区的少数民族学生从小学开始用双语授课,从而培养出双语精通的人才。但在内地,民族成分较单一的地区,母语为汉语的地区来说,所谓的双语指的是英汉双语培养。

正如我们所说的那样,《双语》的主要目的也就是保护和尊重对象民族的语言和文字的基础上要进行另一种语言的培养。不过在新疆地区实际情况已经不是这样了。双语教学虽然是好事,但这种教育模式,只能在不影响母语教学的基础上才能顺利实行。这才是理智的。 目前在新疆有些小学和中学的双语教育模式大大改变,母语文课目的课时甚至少到了双语授课课目的几十分之一。而且学生只能通过语文课才能接触到自己的母语。理科教学都用汉语来进行,除了母语语文课外,文科教学也用汉语。而语文课的课时也很少。 既然双语教学的目的要培养《双语精通》的少数民族人才,但在教学上却忽视了本民族的语言。毕业于这些学校以后,同学们无法成为双语人才,除了母语,从其它任何一门课的专用概念,知识点他只知道汉语的对应,在教学的过程中却忽视了教他维吾尔语的对应。这种情况下这里的《双语》,更是《双》这字无法成立。他们不但不精通自己的母语甚至面向失去自己的母语,他更不可能成为熟练地运用两种语言的人。

我们都知道语言是一个民族文化的最重要的文化成分。一个民族的历史,文学,习俗都从母语中吸收生命力。一个民族的语言不能轻易忽视,对于维吾尔族这样的民族来说,他更需要保护自己的语言。期待国家利用一些有利的手段来保障他们最基本的这些权利。我并不是要反对双语教学,因为社会需要双语人才。国家需要双语人才,但我反对性质变去的双语教学,忽视母语教育的双语教学,实质改变的《双语》。 我希望和相信国家会改良新疆地区双语教学所存在的一些缺陷。而实行真正意义上的双语教学。

备注: 一些相关的精确数据从《新疆教育网》与《乌鲁木齐教育网》

[PR]
by YAPONLUQ | 2011-01-27 00:13 | 東突厥斯坦/"新疆"ウイグル
招かれざる「内地」からの移民
调查显示:只有3.4%的维吾尔人欢迎移民,88.9%反对

http://www.uighurbiz.net/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=231664

维吾尔在线2010年11月14日北京报道,新疆问题专家,维吾尔在线站长,伊力哈木.土赫提于2001年初开始《新疆民族关系》课题的研究,希望在前人研究的基础上,通过实地调查,对新疆民族关系的现状做出独立的评估。并于2005年发布《新疆经济发展与民族关系报告》,此后的几年老师一直持续该课题的调研和研究。
主要利用实地的抽样调查和统计,辅以访谈资料,对新疆的维汉民族关系进行介绍与分析。
新疆维吾尔自治区是一个以维吾尔族为主体的多民族的地区,据《新疆统计年鉴》(2010年),新疆各民族总人口为216863000人,其中维吾尔族(10019758人)和汉族(8416867)合计共占新疆总人口的82.5%以上。
因此,新疆维吾尔族与汉族之间的关系是新疆民族关系的主流。
经过几年的文献与问卷的准备和实地的试调查,伊力哈木老师组织的维吾尔在线《新疆民族关系研究》课题组于2009年10月至12月15日和2010年1月至3月,2010年5月至9月15日,在新疆维吾尔自治区的乌鲁木齐市,和田市,喀什市,阿图什市,库尔勒市,伊宁市,伊宁县,库车县等六市两县以及北京,上海,天津等内地三市进行了问卷调查和访谈。我们在新疆共发放问卷4500份,按要求完成并收回4254份,其合格率约90%。内地三市共发放,问问卷600份,按要求完成并收回558份,其合格率约93%。
在新疆合格问卷中,汉文问卷,占18.51%,维文问卷占81.49%。访谈312人,以维吾尔族居多。内地合格问卷中,汉文问卷,占32.89%,维文问卷占67.11%。访谈98人,其中维吾尔族53人,汉族 45人。
问卷主要涉及民族认同感、民族间交往互动、掌握对方民族语言状况、对宗教问题和民族区域自治的态度、对一些政策实施效果的看法、对民族关系,干群关系和邻里关系的评价以及周边环境的评价等方面,设计出两种文字的问卷,各五十多个问题。问卷经过小范围试调查,多次讨论、反复酝酿修改而定稿。
调查对象为16岁以上(在校大学生有的16岁)的维汉族男女,调查点的选择主要考虑样本的代表性。根据维吾尔族的分布比例,采取分层随机抽样的方法.此次维吾尔在线被授权发布,该报告中的维吾尔族对内地移民态度部分的调查结果

我们观察了维吾尔族对来自内地的移民组成的新疆建设兵团的汉族移民的态度。有88.9%的被调查者都表示“不欢迎”,持相反(欢迎)态度的仅占被调查者的3.4%。但观察维吾尔族对内地来疆务工或务农的汉族流动人口的态度得知,有46.91%的维吾尔族被调查者表示“欢迎”,48.56%的被调查者持反对态度。访谈得知,持反对态度的维吾尔族主要基于兵团人挤压拉生存空间(比如占用太多的耕地,水资源和其他资源),搞不懂他们要干什么,移民不懂得尊重当地人的风俗习惯,文化和权力。例如,夏天有些汉族男子经常光着膀子在外面跑,这一点为当地维吾尔族居民所难以容忍。同时认为移民来的太多了,他们企图改变和控制这里的一切包括我们的生活方式,宗教,语言,资源...等等.在就业市场搞民族歧视,汉族人都易就业,而我们就业率极低,类似情况多少影响了当地维吾尔族对汉族移民的态度。


[PR]
by yaponluq | 2010-11-16 01:47 | 東突厥斯坦/"新疆"ウイグル
隣人にはなっても友人にはならず

调查显示:新疆96.6%维吾尔人没有汉族朋友,
91.9%汉人没有维吾尔族朋友

http://uighurbiz.net/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=231551

维吾尔在线2010年11月6日北京报道,新疆问题专家,维吾尔在线站长,伊力哈木.土赫提于2001年初开始《新疆民族关系》课题的研究,希望在前人研究的基础上,通过实地调查,对新疆民族关系的现状做出独立的评估。并于2005年发布《新疆经济发展与民族关系报告》,此后的几年老师一直持续该课题的调研和研究。
主要利用实地的抽样调查和统计,辅以访谈资料,对新疆的维汉民族关系进行介绍与分析。
新疆维吾尔自治区是一个以维吾尔族为主体的多民族的地区,据《新疆统计年鉴》(2010年),新疆各民族总人口为216863000人,其中维吾尔族(10019758人)和汉族(8416867)合计共占新疆总人口的82.5%以上。
因此,新疆维吾尔族与汉族之间的关系是新疆民族关系的主流。
经过几年的文献与问卷的准备和实地的试调查,伊力哈木老师组织的维吾尔在线《新疆民族关系研究》课题组于2009年10月至12月15日和2010年1月至3月,2010年5月至9月15日,在新疆维吾尔自治区的乌鲁木齐市,和田市,喀什市,阿图什市,库尔勒市,伊宁市,伊宁县,库车县等六市两县以及北京,上海,天津等内地三市进行了问卷调查和访谈。我们在新疆共发放问卷4500份,按要求完成并收回4254份,其合格率约90%。内地三市共发放,问问卷600份,按要求完成并收回558份,其合格率约93%。
在新疆合格问卷中,汉文问卷,占18.51%,维文问卷占81.49%。访谈312人,以维吾尔族居多。内地合格问卷中,汉文问卷,占32.89%,维文问卷占67.11%。访谈98人,其中维吾尔族53人,汉族 45人。
问卷主要涉及民族认同感、民族间交往互动、掌握对方民族语言状况、对宗教问题和民族区域自治的态度、对一些政策实施效果的看法、对民族关系,干群关系和邻里关系的评价以及周边环境的评价等方面,设计出两种文字的问卷,各五十多个问题。问卷经过小范围试调查,多次讨论、反复酝酿修改而定稿。
调查对象为16岁以上(在校大学生有的16岁)的维汉族男女,调查点的选择主要考虑样本的代表性。根据维吾尔族的分布比例,采取分层随机抽样的方法.此次维吾尔在线被授权发布,该报告中的维汉两个民族跨民族的交友情况部分的调查结果。

维汉两个民族跨民族的交友情况

跨民族的交友情况可以反映两民族的交往程度。
调查显示,没有汉族朋友的维吾尔族(96.6%)高于没有维吾尔族朋友的汉族(91.9%),同时在拥有异民族朋友的数量分布上也有差异。汉族拥有“三个或三个以上”维吾尔族朋友的比例(7.5%)比维吾尔族(3.1%)高一倍。这可能是由于语言、职业的差异,人们与异族交往的机会明显不同,两族交往中汉族的异族交往率较高。汉族调查对象都在城区,这里主要是政府部门和事企业单位所在地,精通双语维吾尔族和汉族都比较集中,语言交流的障碍较小,再加上工作需要,维汉两个民族交往的机会较多,交友的机会也相对增加。

新疆维吾尔自治区的族际关系“想说稳定不容易”

研究表明维吾尔族人和汉族人有不同的历史背景、社会关系、苦恼、欢乐、追求、个性的“不同族群”,同时他们也是一群有着自己不同生活主张的的人群,而不是单纯的经济人和“数据人”。两个民族中的大多数人——属于不同社会地位、制度条件、生存条件、生活观念的阶层或人群。比如绝大多数新疆户籍汉人属于党政机关群体、私营企业主群体、小资白领族、国有企业职工,新疆建设兵团的职工(新疆汉族人口的三分之一属于兵团人)和生意人群体,...等等。者两个民族城乡居住格局有着天然的区别,新疆汉族人口的约90%生活在城镇,而维吾尔族人口的约90%生活在农村。

大量に殖民してきた漢人が「隣人」にはなっても友人にはならない現状。
教育が漢語化し、母語より漢語が得意になったとき、ウイグル人は漢人を友とするのか?

[PR]
by yaponluq | 2010-11-10 21:57 | 東突厥斯坦/"新疆"ウイグル
日本教育部将“7.5乌鲁木齐事件”写入教科书/日本の教科書に7.5ウルムチ事件が
日本教育部将“7.5乌鲁木齐事件”写入教科书
http://www.uighurbiz.net/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=229520

作者:Erkin Tarim

日本教育部将“7.5乌鲁木齐事件”写入了最近出版的高中三年级‘当代社会学”课程的教科书。

有关“7.5乌鲁木齐事件”的内容在该课本的第一章节,其中介绍了“7.5乌鲁木齐事件”的原因,以及中国安全部门对该事件的镇压。
在这一章节中还提到了维吾尔地域的地理位置、丰富的自然资源、如今的局势以及1949年以后开始的中国政府的统治。同时课本中还插入了“乌鲁木齐事件”中反对警方并进行示威游行的维吾尔妇女的照片。

日本鹿儿岛大学(Kagoshima University)博士 Haji qutluq qadiri先生在接受RFA采访时表示,这是日本教育部第一次将“东突厥斯坦”发生的事件写入教科书。从这方面来讲,这是非常有意义的。如果世界上其他的国家也将“乌鲁木齐事件”写入教科书,那么这无疑会推动维吾尔问题的国际化。



翻译及整理:“维吾尔在线”--志愿者


元ネタは確認できませんでした… 本当かどうかわかりません。

抄訳:
高校三年生の教科書『当代社会学』に「中国治安当局による弾圧の結果」としるされ、
警察に抗議するウイグル女性の写真も掲載される。

[PR]
by yaponluq | 2010-04-10 16:22 | 社区论坛/BBS
世维大会声称上海世博会前大陆清查维族人
上海万博を目前に北京や上海に住むウイグル人を強制送還。
さらに政府当局は市内すべての旅館・ホテルにウイグル人の宿泊拒否を要求。


世维大会声称上海世博会前大陆清查维族人
http://www.peacehall.com/news/gb/china/2010/03/201003262313.shtml

(博讯北京时间2010年3月26日 转载)
(中央社记者香港26日电)世界维吾尔代表大会今天表示,上海举行世界博览会前,中国各地已展开清查维吾尔人行动,上海及北京开始遣返维吾尔人返回新疆,各地也禁止维吾尔人在世博会期间离开当地。

世界维吾尔代表大会发言人迪里夏提透过电话对中央社表示,虽然距离5月1日开幕的上海世博会还有1个多月,但中共当局为防止维吾尔人在世博会期间抗议或上访,现已展开全面清查维吾尔人行动。

他声称,根据可靠消息,为防止维吾尔人利用上海世博会的机会到北京或上海上访或抗议,最近北京及上海已开始遣返暂住的维吾尔人返回新疆,其中上海已强制遣返70多名经商的维吾尔人,并要求全市所有宾馆及饭店禁止接待维吾尔人入住,一旦发现有维吾尔人登记,要立即向当局汇报。

迪里夏提又說,中共当局也要求民航及铁路部门在世博会期间禁止售票给维吾尔人,而新疆及大陆各地政府要求维吾尔人在世博会期间不要离开当地。

[PR]
by yaponluq | 2010-04-03 17:09 | 东突资讯/ウイグル・ニュース
新疆で毎年八千人が結核で死亡 / 新疆每年近八千人死于结核病
新疆每年近八千人死于结核病
http://news.163.com/10/0325/11/62K8SLNA000146BB.html

2010-03-25 11:05:00 来源: 新疆天山网-新疆日报(新疆)
天山网讯(记者李春霞报道)3月24日是“世界防治结核病日”,2010年的宣传主题是“遏制结核,健康和谐”。当天上午,新疆疾病预防控制中心、自治区胸科医院联合开展结核病义诊咨询活动,为患者提供免挂号费、胸透费及痰涂检查等服务。

据自治区胸科医院呼吸二科主任雪胡拉提·乌守尔介绍,新疆结核病疫情严峻,目前,全区约有活动性肺结核病人8万人,每年新发结核病人2.8万人,每年因结核病死亡人数近8000人,患病率和死亡率分别是全国同期平均水平的1.26倍和3.88倍,并且农村高于城市。近年来,新疆结核病发病形势呈现出复杂、耐药、难治性结核病人增多,结核病合并艾滋病双重感染病人增多等特点。

春季气候温暖,是结核病的高发期。肺结核病人主要通过咳嗽或打喷嚏等把含有结核菌的微沫散播于空气中,健康人吸入含有结核菌的微沫可受到感染。肺结核的发生,一方面与接触的结核菌数量、致病力有关,另一方面与人群的抵抗力有关,缺乏锻炼、患有慢性疾病的人群以及儿童、老人是结核病的易感人群。

雪胡拉提·乌守尔说,根据新疆防治结核病政策,对传染性肺结核病人实行免费检查与全程督导治疗和管理。因此,如果咳嗽、咳痰两个星期以上,或者痰中带血丝者,应怀疑得了肺结核,要及时到当地疾控机构或结核病防治机构就诊,享受免费检查和治疗政策。只要坚持正规治疗,绝大多数肺结核患者是可以治愈的。

(来源:新疆日报)

[PR]
by yaponluq | 2010-03-26 16:26 | 东突资讯/ウイグル・ニュース
【双語教育の実態】ウイグル語を話すごとに罰金10元
说一次维吾尔语罚款十元

http://www.uighurbiz.net/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=228722


看到这个题目您也许会有些惊讶,也可能马上义愤填膺,您也许会问自己到底是哪里有这样的事情,怎么可能会有这种事情?但是,您千万别惊讶,也不要生气,我会详细地说出这件事情的细节。

我们学校成为南疆中小学教师双语教育培训基地以后,学校的领导对此很关心,几乎采取了所有的办法。好歹所作的这些努力也获得了一些成绩。虽然是中等师范学校,但是和很多维吾尔自治区的著名高校一起成功的通过了检查,并获得了表彰。看,为了对双语教育的未来做些贡献,每个学期都有人离开家(有的甚至抱着年幼的孩子)来到我们学校。他们在学校的努力的确让人折服。再加上严格的纪律,他们几乎没有自由出入的机会。因为他们要享受政府每个月发放给他们的补助啊!他们当然也要有与此相符合的表现。

最近,有一位教育厅的维吾尔领导到我们学校检查双语教学的质量。由于较早地接到了通知,学校里的人为了迎接调查而变得手忙脚乱。经常在办公室看报纸,打牌的学校主任们一下子变得忙活起来。会议室里的会议开个不停;不足的材料和器材得到了补充;美好的景象被拍摄下来制成了专题片;学员们都开了会,对他们是软硬兼施,他们的耳朵都被填了一遍;以前没有完成的任务都被查了个遍,并发誓一定会完成这些任务。学校里被打扫的干干净净,孩子们容光焕发,各个变得干净利索。随后,那个领导也带着六七个跟随人员来到了我们学校。看样子这一次他们会查的比较严。调查开始了,材料也大致上被翻了一遍;喝着冷饮,专题片也被看了一遍;学校著名教师背的滚瓜烂熟的课也被听了一遍。看着学生们在课堂上踊跃的回答和积极地表现,领导们也真正相信了学校的教学质量。

在做工作总结的时候领导们当然也提出了宝贵的意见。以上写的内容就和这其中一个宝贵的意见有紧密的联系。在总结了学校的功绩以后,领导表示学校在双语教育上最突出的缺陷就是学生们平时用自己的母语交谈。领导表示这样会影响到双语教学,下一次来的时候他不想再看到这种状况。

这个意见在调查团走后成了学校领导讨论的特别问题。最终决定对此采取以下措施,即:不允许所有在校接受双语教育的学生在宿舍,浴室,教室,操场,路上,洗手间等场合讲母语。要是发现违反此规定的人,一次将罚款十元。这期间学校里的每一个教师和学生都需要互相监督。希望广大师生能自觉的遵守规定。

这个规定一经颁布就成了学校里许多学生纷纷讨论的热点话题。但是没有哪个人站出来对此表达反对意见。因为学校的主要目的也是教好学生们语言啊!

学校当然不会制定不利于学生的规定,所以我们都打算用这样的想法来安慰自己。但是从另一方面来看,强迫要求长期使用而习惯了一种语言的人用另一种语言交谈,还使用罚款的措施,这是不是不尊重别人使用自己语言和文字的自由呢?有没有必要找出更好的办法来教授别人一门语言呢?

那些制定该措施的人有没有考虑过这些问题呢?我们又应该对这一问题持怎样的态度?我可能无法单独回答这个问题。如果您有机会看到这篇文章的话,也请您想想办法,提出自己的看法,帮我解开头脑中的结,这样我会感到万分荣幸。


本文来自Lopnuri 博客,原文地址:http://lopnuri.blogbus.com/logs/33853466.html

译者:维吾尔在线--志愿者



拙ブログより 「ウイグル語教育廃止の流れがまた一歩加速」
http://yaponluq.exblog.jp/8811795

[PR]
by yaponluq | 2010-03-10 18:16 | 东突资讯/ウイグル・ニュース
中国当局、日本人のウイグル専門家入国を拒否

<德国之声中文网> 水谷尚子谈在北京被拒绝入境
http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,5305440,00.html



中国当局、日本人のウイグル専門家入国を拒否

中央大学非常勤講師の水谷尚子氏(中国近現代史)が27日、東京・羽田空港から中国・北京空港に到着したが、中国当局に入国を拒否された。


水谷氏は「中国を追われたウイグル人」などの著書があり、昨年7月に大規模暴動が起きた新疆ウイグル自治区などを訪れる予定だった。入国拒否の理由は告げられなかったが、日本人の入国拒否は異例で、中国政府がウイグル族問題に神経をとがらせていることを示した。

水谷氏によると、着陸後に機内放送で呼び出され、入国拒否を告げられて東京に引き返したという。中国では、区都ウルムチ経由で南部ホータンなどを訪れ、新疆ルポを著した中国人作家に北京で面会する予定だった。

水谷氏は昨年、亡命ウイグル人組織「世界ウイグル会議」のラビア・カーディル議長が来日した際に、身元保証人となった。

(2010年2月28日00時43分 読売新聞)


中国、邦人学者の入国拒否 カーディル氏支援理由か

 【北京共同】 中国から海外に逃れたウイグル人の研究をしている中央大の水谷尚子講師(43)が27日、中国人作家と会うために中国を訪問しようとしたところ、北京空港で入国管理当局により拒否され、日本に強制送還されたことが分かった。

 水谷講師が昨年7月、亡命ウイグル人組織「世界ウイグル会議」のラビア・カーディル主席(米国在住)の訪日活動を支援したことが理由とみられる。北京の日本大使館によると、中国で日本人が入国を拒否されるのは珍しい。

 水谷講師によると、入管は入国拒否の理由を説明しなかった。航空機が北京空港に到着後、直ちに別室に連行され、約2時間尋問を受けた後、日本に戻る便に乗せられた。

 水谷講師は「まるでテロリストのような扱いだった。私は日本では対中穏健派の研究者なのに中国は勉強が足りない」と残念そうに話した。

 昨年7月、中国新疆ウイグル自治区ウルムチで起きた大暴動で、中国政府はカーディル氏を「暴動の扇動者」「犯罪者」などと非難。同月末に訪日した際、水谷講師は身元保証人となっていた。

 水谷講師は中国人作家がウイグル人について書いた著作の日本語版出版の打ち合わせや新疆への旅行のため、訪中する予定だった。

2010/02/28 00:24 【共同通信】


中国拒绝日本支持“疆独”学者入境 日媒关注

来源:环球时报
本报驻日本特约记者 蒋 丰

  一名支持“疆独”的日本学者2月27日在北京被拒绝入境。这一消息成为日本多家媒体28日关注的热点。有分析认为,中国政府拒绝日本人入境的罕见举动表明其对新疆问题的重视。

  据日本《朝日新闻》2月28日报道,研究维吾尔族人的日本中央大学的契约讲师水谷尚子2月27日在北京机场被中国入境管理部门拒绝入境。去年7月,水谷尚子曾经策划了热比娅的访日活动,并为热比娅做了入境身份保证人。她以所谓的维护维吾尔族人权利为由,进行了一系列活动,发表了诸多言论,在日为“疆独”势力奔跑。

  报道援引水谷尚子本人的描述称,她乘飞机到达北京机场后,工作人员通过机内广播要求她最先走下飞机,然后在入境事务处告诉她,这次不被允许进入中国。报道称,水谷尚子大约在5年前到过中国。这次她事先没有申请签证,准备利用中国对日本人实施的入境15天免签制度,到中国新疆等地活动。

  日本《读卖新闻》的报道提及水谷尚子著有《被中国追赶的维吾尔族人》一书,认为她此行不仅计划要到去年发生暴力事件的新疆维吾尔自治区,还准备在北京和一些写新疆纪实的作者见面。《读卖新闻》认为,中国政府拒绝日本公民入境是十分罕见的,这说明中国政府对新疆问题十分重视。日本共同社也认为,中国拒绝水谷尚子的原因在于她用行动支援海外的“疆独”分子。

  日本一位不愿意透露姓名的中国问题专家对《环球时报》表示,中国政府这样做是可以理解的。在中国看来,热比娅的行为是分裂中国的行为,支持热比娅就是支持分裂中国。世界上恐怕任何一个国家都不会接受希望分裂自己国家的人入境。日本学者中岛岭雄曾经提出中国在未来应该分裂成为7块地区,这个论点后来被李登辉发展成为“两国论”。事后,中国就多次拒绝中岛岭雄申请访华签证。这次,中国拒绝水谷尚子入境再次表明中国可以同意外国持不同政见的学者入境,但不会允许在行动上支持分裂中国的外国学者入境。▲

上記記事に対する中国人のコメント↓
http://www.huanqiu.com/content_comment.php?tid=729246&mid=1&cid=387
[PR]
by yaponluq | 2010-03-01 14:40 | 东突资讯/ウイグル・ニュース
【UNHCR】Trafficking in Persons Report 2009 - China
Trafficking in Persons Report 2009 - China
http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,USDOS,,CHN,,4a4214c6c,0.html
Publisher : United States Department of State
Country : China
Publication : Date 16 June 2009
Cite as : United States Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report 2009 - China, 16 June 2009, available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4a4214c6c.html [accessed 9 December 2009]
CHINA (Tier 2 Watch List)

The People's Republic of China (PRC) is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation. Although the majority of trafficking in the PRC occurs within the country's borders, there is also considerable trafficking of PRC citizens to Africa, other parts of Asia, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and North America. Women are lured through false promises of legitimate employment and forced into commercial sexual exploitation largely in Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, and Japan. Chinese women and men are smuggled throughout the world at great personal financial cost and then forced into commercial sexual exploitation or exploitative labor to repay debts to traffickers. Women and children are trafficked to China from such countries as Mongolia, Burma, North Korea, Russia, Vietnam, Romania, and Ghana for purposes of forced labor, marriage, and sexual slavery. There were new reports that Vietnamese men are trafficked to China for forced labor and ethnic Hmong girls and women from Vietnam trafficked for forced marriages in China. Some women from Tibet were trafficked to Indonesia for forced prostitution. Some North Koreans seeking to leave their country enter northeastern China and are subsequently subjected to sexual servitude or forced labor. North Korean women are often sold into forced marriages with Chinese nationals, or forced to work in internet sex businesses. Some experts and NGOs suggested trafficking in persons has been fueled by economic disparity and the effects of population planning policies, and that a shortage of marriageable women fuels the demand for abducted women, especially in rural areas. While it is difficult to determine if the PRC's male-female birth ratio imbalance, with more males than females, is currently affecting trafficking of women for brides, some experts believe that it has already or may become a contributing factor.

Forced labor remained a serious problem in penal institutions. This was mainly the product of administrative decisions, rather than the result of due process and conviction. Many prisoners and detainees in reeducation through labor facilities were required to work, often with no remuneration. Some children are abducted for forced begging and thievery in large cities. There were numerous confirmed reports of involuntary servitude of children, migrant workers, and abductees in China. In April 2008, a Chinese newspaper uncovered an extensive child forced labor network in Guangdong province that reportedly took thousands of children as young as seven years old from poor rural areas of Sichuan province, populated largely by the Yi minority, to work in factories in southeastern China. According to the report, the children were sold in labor markets to factory owners and forced to work 10 hours a day, seven days a week, for as little as 30 cents per hour. These children were found near Dongguan, where in total over 500 children from Sichuan were discovered working in a factory in June 2007. In October 2008, a Chinese blogger exposed publicly several cases of child labor in Wuhan factories, and reported that the factories had evaded detection by receiving advance warning of pending labor inspections. Under the government-sanctioned work-study programs, elementary schools supplied factories and farms with forced child labor under the pretext of vocational training. Students had no say in the terms and conditions of their employment, and little to no protection from abusive work practices. Conditions in this program included excessive hours with mandatory overtime, dangerous conditions, low pay, and involuntary pay deductions. The Xinjiang provincial government forced thousands of local students to labor through "work-study" programs in order to meet yearly harvesting quotas. Overseas human rights organizations alleged that government-sponsored labor programs forced Uighur girls and young women to work in factories in eastern China on false pretenses and without regular wages. During the year, international media reported over 300 children, many of them from Xinjiang, were laboring in a shoe factory in eastern China as a part of a government labor transfer program. The group included many Uighur girls, whose families were reportedly coerced and in some cases threatened by government officials to participate in the program using fake or swapped identification cards provided by the government. Additionally, authorities in Xinjiang reportedly continued to impose forced labor on area farmers in predominantly ethnic minority regions. In recent years, organized criminal networks have become more sophisticated at cheating and abducting migrant workers, including abduction by anesthetizing the often unsupervised children of migrant worker parents.

Experts believe that the number of Chinese trafficking victims in Europe is growing dramatically, where large informal economies create a "pull" for exploitable labor. While some Chinese enter Europe legally and overstay their visas, others are smuggled in and work as domestic servants and in underground sweatshops. Some trafficking victims are exploited in the sex trade. Teenage girls from China are trafficked into the UK for prostitution, and Chinese children are reportedly trafficked into Sweden by organized criminal networks for forced begging elsewhere in Europe. In February 2009, seven Chinese sex trafficking victims were rescued in Ghana, having been forced into prostitution by Chinese traffickers who had promised them jobs as waitresses.

The Chinese government does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however it is making significant efforts to do so. Despite these efforts, the Chinese government did not demonstrate progress in combating human trafficking from the previous year, particularly in terms of punishment of trafficking crimes and the protection of Chinese and foreign victims of trafficking; therefore, China is placed on Tier 2 Watch List. Forced labor, especially forced child labor, remains a serious problem in the country. Despite substantial resources, during the reporting period, the government did not make efforts to improve victim assistance programs. Protection of domestic and foreign victims of trafficking remains insufficient. Victims are sometimes punished for unlawful acts that were a direct result of their being trafficked – such as violations of prostitution or immigration/emigration controls. The Chinese government continued to treat North Korean trafficking victims as unlawful economic migrants, and routinely deported them back to horrendous conditions in North Korea. Additional challenges facing the Chinese government include the enormous size of its trafficking problem and corruption and complicity in trafficking by some local government officials. Factors that continue to impede progress in anti-trafficking efforts include tight controls over civil society organizations, restricted access of foreign anti-trafficking organizations and the government's systemic lack of transparency.

Recommendations for China: Revise anti-trafficking laws and the National Plan of Action to criminalize and address all forms of labor and sex trafficking in a manner consistent with international standards; significantly improve efforts to investigate and prosecute trafficking offenses and convict and punish trafficking offenders, including public officials complicit in trafficking; increase efforts to address labor trafficking, including prosecuting and punishing recruiters and employers who facilitate forced labor and debt bondage, and provide protection services to victims of forced labor; continue to increase cooperation with foreign governments on cross-border trafficking cases; adopt proactive procedures to identify victims of trafficking among vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers and foreign women and children arrested for prostitution; increase efforts to protect and rehabilitate both sex and labor trafficking victims; provide foreign victims with legal alternatives to removal to countries in which they may face hardship or retribution; conduct a campaign to reduce the demand for forced labor and commercial sex acts; and adhere to its obligations as party to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol, including by not expelling North Koreans protected under those treaties and by cooperating with UNHCR in the exercise of its functions.

Prosecution

China's domestic laws do not conform to international standards on trafficking; China's definition of trafficking does not prohibit non-physical forms of coercion, fraud, debt bondage, involuntary servitude, forced labor, or offenses committed against male victims, although some aspects of these crimes are addressed in other articles of China's criminal law. China's legal definition of trafficking also does not automatically regard minors over the age of 14 who are subjected to the commercial sex trade as victims. While Article 244 of China's Criminal Code bans forced labor by employers, the prescribed penalties of up to three years' imprisonment or a fine under this law are not sufficiently stringent. Additionally, Chinese law does not recognize forms of coercion other than abduction as constituting a means of trafficking. Based on China's limited definition of "trafficking," and the government's conflation of human smuggling and trafficking offenses, the Ministry of Public Security (MPS) reported investigating 2,566 potential trafficking cases in 2008. Law enforcement authorities arrested and punished some traffickers, but a lack of transparency and due process, as well as a paucity of trafficking-specific law enforcement data inhibits an accurate assessment of these efforts. Several foreign governments reported a lack of cooperation by Chinese authorities in transnational trafficking cases involving foreign trafficking victims in China. During the year, the government did not provide the United Nations with data on prosecutions, convictions, or sentences of traffickers. Consequently, China was not among the 155 countries covered by the UN's Global Report on Human Trafficking released in February 2009. Government efforts described as addressing human trafficking were aimed at sex trafficking during the reporting period. In November 2008, police in Fujian province reportedly discovered a trafficking case involving 18 Vietnamese women who had been trafficked to Yunnan, Guangxi and other provinces in China for marriage. Also in Fujian, in December, police arrested 10 members of a criminal gang accused of having trafficked 10 female sex workers to men in isolated villages for approximately USD 800 to USD 1,200 each. In Guizhou Province, official media reported that 29 defendants were convicted for trafficking more than 80 female victims for forced marriage, and the main defendant was sentenced to death. According to official media, police in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region rescued 746 children from trafficking gangs which had kidnapped and forced them into pick-pocketing. The Xinjiang Public Security Bureau reported that 177 suspects were arrested. Reported incidents in 2008 involving forced and child labor reflect continuing legal and administrative weaknesses in China's anti-trafficking enforcement. Subsequent to the April 2008 discovery of a massive child labor market in Southeast China, the Dongguan local government claimed that it found no evidence of large-scale child labor during its raids on over 3,600 work sites in two days. Nonetheless, raids led to the rescue of at least 167 children, according to local police sources. Despite the discovery of child laborers and reports that some minors were raped by factory operators, the government did not criminally or administratively prosecute or convict any employers for any labor offenses. The Guangdong provincial government subsequently denied earlier reports and retracted police statements, claiming that police had found only six underage workers, none of whom had been raped or abducted. In a child labor case in Wuhan, authorities announced a crackdown on child labor in small-scale workshops in Wuhan, but there was no further reporting on the story. There were continued reports of local officials' complicity in trafficking, including by providing advance warning of pending labor inspections and brothel raids. The Chinese government has not demonstrated concerted efforts to investigate, prosecute, and punish government officials for complicity in human trafficking.

Protection

China continued to lack adequate victim protection services throughout most the country. There continued to be no dedicated government assistance programs for victims of trafficking. China has an inadequate number of shelters to assist trafficking victims, and regularly returns trafficking victims to their homes without access to counseling or psychological care. Most of the existing shelters are temporary, not exclusive to trafficking victims, and provide little or no care to repatriated victims. Provincial women's federation offices provide counseling on legal rights, rehabilitation, and other assistance to trafficking victims. Local governments continue to rely on NGOs and international organizations for technical and material support to identify victims and provide victim protection services. The government continues to obstruct the independent operation of NGOs and international organizations that provide assistance on trafficking issues. Trafficking victims were generally repatriated involuntarily without any rehabilitation assistance. There was no reported protection or rehabilitation provided to the 167 children rescued from factories near Dongguan. The government has not provided any assistance to the Chinese sex trafficking victims identified in Ghana, who face threats and retaliation from their traffickers if they return to China. The Chinese government continues to lack systematic procedures to identify trafficking victims, including victims of sex trafficking, among those it arrests for prostitution, in order to refer them to organizations providing services and to ensure that they are not inappropriately penalized for unlawful acts committed as a result of being trafficked. The All-China Women's Federation (ACWF), a quasi-government entity, reported that ongoing problems required intervention to protect trafficking victims from unjust punishment. MPS officials stated that repatriated victims of trafficking no longer faced fines or other punishment upon their return, but authorities acknowledged that Chinese and foreign victims sometimes are sentenced or fined because of police corruption, the lack of capacity to identify trafficking victims, or provisions allowing for the imposition of fines on persons traveling without proper documentation. Some border officials are trained by MPS to identify potential victims of trafficking. In October 2008, 200 Burmese women were arrested and jailed in China for immigration violations; they had allegedly been smuggled into the country under the pretext of finding work and were reportedly sold and forced to marry Chinese men. Reports suggest that many of the women were deported to Burma, while others were expected to serve three-month prison sentences for violating Chinese immigration laws. The Ministry of Civil Affairs began working with the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on an IOM-funded training module for the identification, protection, and reintegration of trafficking victims. The government does not provide foreign victims with legal alternatives to removal to countries in which they may face hardship or retribution. Some trafficking victims have faced punishments in the form of fines for leaving China without proper authorization.

In the year leading up to the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympic Games, Chinese authorities stepped up efforts to locate and forcibly repatriate North Korean refugees in China – including trafficking victims – in violation of their commitments on the humane treatment of refugees under international law. China continues to treat North Korean trafficking victims solely as illegal economic migrants and reportedly deports a few hundred of them each month to North Korea, where they may face severe punishment. Chinese authorities continue to limit the UN High Commissioner for Refugees' (UNHCR) access to North Korean refugees in China. The lack of access to UNHCR assistance and constant fear of forced repatriation by Chinese authorities leaves North Korean refugees more vulnerable to human traffickers.

Prevention

China made some effort to prevent trafficking in persons during the reporting period. In light of the size of China's trafficking problem, however, more needs to be done. Targeted public awareness campaigns, run by the All-China Women's Federation (ACWF), continued to disseminate information on trafficking prevention and focused on reaching young female migrant workers. ACWF also continued to identify model communities that protected women's rights, offered legal and psychological assistance for victims of domestic violence and trafficking, and made available shelters for vulnerable women. Government agencies, associations, and youth organizations continued to run hotlines for victims of trafficking-related crimes, including forced child labor. Hotlines for migrant workers whose rights had been violated were also continued in 15 provinces. Provincial governments in Yunnan, Sichuan, and Guangxi continued their own prevention campaigns, including radio broadcasts, brochures, performances, poster shows, and targeted campaigns to spread the word among Chinese women of the dangers of trafficking and how to avoid becoming a victim. In Beijing, the government held an anti-trafficking publicity campaign on International Women's Day to raise public awareness of human trafficking and to publicize prevention measures. The national government has not addressed two policies that may create vulnerabilities to trafficking: the birth limitation policy that contributes to a gender imbalance that some believe has led to bride trafficking in the Chinese population, and the unevenly implemented hukou (household registration) system that controls the movements of internal migrants. During the reporting period, China issued implementation guidelines for its 2008 National Plan of Action to define roles and responsibilities of relevant agencies, and provincial action plans were developed in four provinces. The Ministry of Public Security (MPS) held training courses for approximately 2,000 police officers in 10 provinces on anti-trafficking measures, as well as training on combating cross-border trafficking Police officers responsible for anti-trafficking measures participated in anti-trafficking and victim protection training courses overseas, and the MPS co-hosted training sessions with counterparts in Vietnam and Burma. The government did not take any noticeable measures during the reporting period to reduce the demand for forced labor, commercial sex acts, or child sex tourism. Chinese forces participating in peacekeeping initiatives abroad have not been implicated in trafficking while overseas, but did not receive specific training on trafficking in persons prior to deployment. China has not ratified the 2000 UN TIP Protocol.

[PR]
by yaponluq | 2009-12-09 18:47 | 東突厥斯坦/"新疆"ウイグル